1. Resources
    1. Online Courses
    2. YouTube
    3. Podcasts in Korean
    4. Hangul 한굴
    5. Translators
    6. Language Exchange Sites
    7. Handwriting
    8. Sites
  2. Hangul (the native Korean alphabet)
    1. Emacs
    2. Romanization
    3. Vowels
    4. Combination Vowels
    5. Normal Consonants
    6. Aspirated Consonants
  3. Advice
    1. Don't Translate Think in Korean
    2. TED Talk - How to Learn a Language in 6 Months
  4. Numbers
  5. Expressions
    1. "To Be", "is"
    2. to be not, it is not, you are not
      1. Examples
    3. "This"
    4. Modifier
      1. Pronoun
    5. Have/Don't Have
  6. Grammar Notes
    1. Conjugate
    2. Pronoun vs Modifiers
    3. Topic Marking Particles and Subject Marking Particles
      1. Topic Marking Particles
      2. Subject Marking Particles
      3. Putting it together
    4. Weather Phrases
    5. Dialogue 5
    6. Discussion 6
  7. Dialog 7

Resources

Online Courses

YouTube

Podcasts in Korean

Hangul 한굴

  • http://www.learnlangs.com/RWP/Korean/

Translators

  • http://www.voiceware.co.kr/kor/index.php

Language Exchange Sites

  • http://www.hellotalk.com/
  • http://www.italki.com/
  • http://www.lang-8.com/

Handwriting

  • Paper: http://keytokorean.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/wongoji-writing-paper.pdf
  • Nanum Font seems to be popular

Sites

  • Korean Maps: http://map.daum.net/
  • Repetitive Learning: http://www.memrise.com/
  • kmaru: www.kmaru.com
  • Full course on how to learn Hangul ::https://www.learn-korean-now.com/membership.php
  • Fun Quiz site to learn Hangul http://www.aeriagloris.com/LearnKorean/
  • Rocket Korean
  • I might check this out: Korean Grammar for International Learners
  • http://iteslj.org/v/k/
  • http://www.howtostudykorean.com/
  • http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/korean/my-korean-1/
  • http://www.fluentin3months.com/
  • https://www.learnwitholiver.com/korean/
  • http://ankisrs.net/
  • http://korean.sogang.ac.kr/
  • http://www.koreanwikiproject.com/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page
  • http://www.hanbooks.com/kolate1.html

Hangul (the native Korean alphabet)

  • Cool program for combining letters and hearing pronunciations http://mooc.yonsei.ac.kr/ksh/
  • Reference :: https://www.zkorean.com/hangul/appearance
  • Nice Overview of how to learn Hangul :: http://www.learnkoreanlanguage.com/learn-hangul.html

Emacs

To type korean characters into emacs, first, set the keyboard input method using M-x set-input-method and choose korean-hangul.

Then, to switch back and forth between korean and english, use C-\

Romanization

  • eo : sounds like "awe" to me
  • i : sounds like "eee" to me
  • eu : sounds like "euw"

Vowels

  • ㅏ :: "a" sound as in "father"
  • ㅓ :: [eo] sound as in "awe"
  • ㅗ :: "ol" sound, sort of without the l and sort of like your saying "o"
  • ㅜ :: "ooo" sound, as in "you"
  • ㅡ :: "oo" sound, as in "good". Sort of like getting hit in stomach, but don't grunt! Comes from back of mouth.
  • ㅣ :: "ee" sound, as in "meet"
  • ㅔ :: short "e" sound, as in "yes"
  • ㅐ :: "ea" as in "bear"

When a vowel symbol has 2 small marks (instead of one small mark), add a 'y' before the standard vowel sound.

  • ㅑ :: "yah" as in "yacht", sharp a sound, like someone saying "yeah" in english
  • ㅕ :: "ya" (softer "a" sound, almost "o"), as in the sound boys make when pretending to do karate "Hi-Ya!"
  • ㅛ :: "yo", as in "yo-yo".
  • ㅠ :: "you". easy.
  • ㅖ :: "ye", as in "yes"
  • ㅒ :: "ye", really subtle difference from ㅖ

Combination Vowels

  • ㅘ :: "o" ("ol") followed by "a" ("yeah"), say it fast enough and it sounds like "wa" (like a baby crying). Native speakers gloss over and often just pronounce the ㅏ
  • ㅜㅓ :: "ooo" ("you") followed by "awe". say it fast: "wah" (like "waffles")
  • ㅟ :: "wee"
  • ㅢ :: "uee". this is a weird one. It's the gutteral, back-of-the mouth ㅡ, followed by ㅣ
  • ㅞ :: "we" as in "wet"
  • ㅚ :: same as ㅞ
  • ㅙ :: "wea", very similar to ㅚ, but different.

Normal Consonants

  • ㅇ :: makes no sound at beginning of syllable. At end of syllable, makes "ng" sound. Not considered a consonant, really.
  • ㅁ :: basic 'm' sound
  • ㄴ :: basic 'n' sound
  • ㄱ :: mixture of 'g' and 'k'. Referred to as "voiced" ('g' sound) or not "voiced" ('k' sound). When ㄱ is between two vowels it will sound more like a 'g' sound than 'k'. At the end of a word, it sounds like a very light 'k' sound that hardly noticable.
  • ㅂ :: mixture of 'b' and 'p' sounds. 'b' is voiced and 'p' is not voiced
  • ㄷ :: mixture of voiced 'd' and not voiced 't' sound.
  • ㅅ :: 's' sound
  • ㅈ :: mixture of voiced 'j' and 'ch' sound
  • ㅎ :: 'h' sound, but sometimes not pronounced
  • ㄹ :: sort of a rolling 'r', 'L' sound

Aspirated Consonants

Advice

Don't Translate Think in Korean

Don't try to translate from korean - to english - to korean in your head. Instead, think like a baby learns, just try to think and speak in korean.

(thanks to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJ4uIXIIy0M)

TED Talk - How to Learn a Language in 6 Months

  • Chris Longdale :: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0yGdNEWdn0

The five principles are:

  1. Focus on language content that is relevant to you.
  2. Use your language as a tool to communicate from day 1.
  3. When you understand the message you will acquire the language unconsciously, i.e comprehensible input (Krashen, et al)
  4. Language is not about accumulating a lot of knowledge but is rather a type of physiological training.
  5. Psycho-physiological state matters – you need to be happy, relaxed, and most importantly, you need to be tolerant of ambiguity. Don’t try to understand every detail as it will drive you crazy.

The seven actions are:

  1. Listen a lot – it doesn’t matter if you understand or not. Listen to rhythms and patterns.
  2. Focus on getting the meaning first, before the words. Body language and facial expressions can help.
  3. Start mixing, get creative, and use what you’re learning
  4. Focus on the core – the most commonly-used words, and use the language to learn more (What is this/that? How do you say ? etc.)
  5. Get a language parent – someone who is fluent in the language and who will do their best to understand what you mean; who will not correct your mistakes; who will feedback their understanding of what you’re saying using correct language, and uses words that you know.
  6. Copy the face – watch native speakers and observe who their face, and particular their mouth, moves when they’re speaking
  7. “Direct connect” to the target language – find ways to connect words directly with images and other internal representations.

Week one Learn how to say this in target language:

  • What is this?
  • How do you say?
  • I don't understand.
Week two Pronouns, Common Verbs, Adjectives
  • you
  • that
  • me
  • give
  • hot
Week 3 and 4 Glue words
  • although
  • but
  • and

Numbers

Native Korean Numbers and Sino-Korean Numbers

Sino-Korean refers to a Korean word based on Chinese language.

1 일 2

Expressions

  • 감사 = "appreciation", or "thankfulness"
  • 합니다 = "I do"
  • 감사합니다 = thank you
  • 안녕하세요 = hello
  • 죄 remember ㅚ makes the "weh" sound
  • 죄송합니다 = "sorry"
  • 초삼합니디 = "sorry" (?) Not sure what's different than above?
  • 저기요 = "excuse me", "hey, you over there!" (but more polite)
  • 안닝히 가세요 = "Good Bye", when you're leaving
  • 안녕히 계세요 = "See you", when someone else is leaving
  • 잭 = book
  • 카피 = coffee
  • 네 = "That's right", or "I'm here", or "I understand", or "I see", or "uh huh".
  • 네,맞아요 = Yes, you're right (with emphasis)
  • 네? = "What did you say?", or "Pardon me?"
  • 네? = "I don't understand"
  • 네! = "I'm surprised!"
  • 아니요 = "I disagree" or "Thats Not right" or "You're incorrect"
  • 촣 = you (?)
  • 죄송 = apology (?)
  • 감사합니다 = Thank You
  • What is it? :: Mwah yay-yoAngry tone means "What do you want?! leave me alone!"
  • aroo boon (everyone)
  • Kamsa Hamnida aroo boon
  • My Bad, My Fault (sort of like I'm sorry) :: joe-song-hap-mi-da
  • Excuse me (get someones attention) joe-gi-yo
  • Excuse me (pass thru) :: jam-si-man-yo
  • Please Give me - 주세요
  • taste - 맛
  • It's tasty. It's delicious - 맛있어요
  • It's not tasty. - 맛없어요
  • 카메라예요 - It's a camera
  • 이거 카메라예요 - This thing is a camera
  • 이 카메라예요 - This is a camera
  • 이 카메라 - This camera

"To Be", "is"

  • 이에요 or 에요 = is, it's

to be not, it is not, you are not

  • 아니에요 = it is not, you are not, to be not

Also used as a response for "Thank You".

Examples

  • "is water": mul e-a-you
  • "is me" : toh yay-you
  • "is School" : hak-you yay-you
  • "What is it?" : 뭐예요? [mwo-ye-yo?]

The rule that determines if word is e-a-yo or ya-yo. If the word has a 3 consonant, then use e-a-yo. If not, use yay-yo.

"This"

  • 이 = "this"
  • 거 or 것 = thing, item, stuff, fact
  • 이거 or 이것 = this thing, this item, this one

Modifier

이 = this 저 = the, that (over there, away from both people) 그 = the, that (close to another person)

Pronoun

  • Add "geo" and "geot"

Have/Don't Have

  • 있어요 = Have or Exists
  • 없어요 = Don't have or Doesn't Exists

Grammar Notes

Conjugate

To conjugate means to change the tense of a verb

Pronoun vs Modifiers

  • Pronoun: "This is my car".
  • Modifier: "This car is mine". Modifiers are followed by nouns

In Korean there are different words for pronouns vs modifiers. See the different versions of "This" for an example.

Topic Marking Particles and Subject Marking Particles

Most languages don't have Subject or Topic Marking Particles.

In Korean you put particles after words. Particles let other people know what you are talking about or going to talk about it.

Topic Marking Particles

Topic Marking Particles put emphasis on words. "As in, the weather is good today at least (but maybe not anything else is good)"

은 for words ending with last consonant 는 for words ending with a vowel

Subject Marking Particles

"none other than", or "nothing but"

이 for words ending with last consonant 가 for words ending with vowel

Putting it together

  • tjew-ya-yo "Is good"
  • i-cheak-tjeh-ya-yo = simplest way to say "This book is good". No emphasis.
  • i-cheak-ueng-tjeh-ya-yo = "at least this book is good", "this is the only book that's good", "other books are bad"
  • i-cheak-i-tjeh-ya-yo = "this book is good", "none other than this one is good". This is sort of like an answer to "Which one is good".

Weather Phrases

일기예보에서 오늘 날씨가 어떻다고 했어요? what did the forecast say about today's weather

맑아 it's clear

맑았어요 it was clear

맑을거에요 it will be clear

맑을거야 informal it will be clear

It is cloudy 흐려요

informal 흐려

It was cloudy 흐렸었어요

흐렸었어

It will be cloudy 흐릴거에요 informal 흐릴거야

It is rainy 비가 와요 informal 비가 와

Rain 비

It was rainy 비가 왔었어요 informal 비가 왔었어

It will be rainy 비가 올거에요 informal 비가 올거야

It is snowy 눈이 와요 informal 눈이 와 눈 (snow)

눈이 오다 it's snowing

눈이 왔었어요 it was snowing informal 눈이 왔었어

it will snow 눈이 올거에요

It will be snowy informal 눈이 올거야

바람이 불어요 it is windy

바람 wind

불다 to blow

바람이 불다

양초 candles

blow candles 양초를 불다

it's windy 바람이 불어

It was windy 바람이 불었어요 informal 바람이 불었어

it will be windy 바람이 불거에요 informal 바람이 불거야

it is foggy 안개가 껴요 informal 안개가 껴

안개 fog

it was foggy 안개가 꼈었어요 informal 안개가 꼈었어

it will be foggy 안개가 낄거에요 informal 안개가 낄거야

대니 : 일기예보에서 내일 서울 날씨가 어떻다고 했어요? what did the forecast say about tomorrow's weather in Seoul? 서울 어떻다고 인천 대이브 : 일기예보에서 내일 비가 올거라고 했어요 Forecast said, it will be rainy

대니 : 우산을 챙겨야겠네요 I will prepare an umbrella

우산 umbrella

챙기다 prepare

Dialogue 5

도착 할 것이다 will arrive

먹을 것이다 will eat

먹을 거에요 I will eat

잘 것이다 will sleep

여기요, 결혼 선물이에요. Here is a wedding present.

정말요? really?

고마워요 thank you

이게 뭐에요? what is it?

신혼여행 honey moon

신랑 groom

신부 bride

신랑하고 with your group

같이 together

같이 가요 go together

입어요 wear it

시각 주세요

Discussion 6

엄마 mom

집에 home

들어오다 to come inside a building to enter

들어와요? when will you come?

늦다 to be late

늦어요 will you be late?

늦게 오다 to come late

올 거에요 speaking asking form of "to come"

어제보다 than yesterday

보다 than

늦게 late

나는 너보다 키가 크다 I am taller than you

대니는 마이크 보다 더 잘생겼다 Danny is more handsome than Mike

몰라요 don't know (negative sentence)

아직 yet, still (depends on context of sentence)

저녁 Dinner

저녁을 먹다

저녁먹자 Let's eat dinner

와서 저녁먹자 come and eat dinner

와서 come and

먹고 eat and

자고 seleep and

[4/12/16, 8:47:43 AM] Danny Yeon: 등산하다 to climb [4/12/16, 8:47:48 AM] Danny Yeon: 그리고 and [4/12/16, 8:47:51 AM] Danny Yeon: = 등산하고 put them together: climb and ..

먹고 올 거예요 I will eat and will come.

일 work

일이 많아요

많다 to be a lot

네. 요즘 일이 많아서 바빠요 I have been busy these days because of a lot of work

많아서 because of a lot

그래도 or 하지만 but

꼭 necessarily

먹어야 돼요 have to eat

전에 after

후에 before

노력하다 to try

노력해볼게요 will try

먹어볼게요 will try to eat

자볼게요 try to sleep.

Dialog 7

불금 TGIF

불타는 금요일

불타는 Burning

금요일 Friday

깨우다 wake up

깨워주세요 Please wake up

일어났어요 I woke up

그렇게 like that

일어나야돼요 do it like that

일찍 early

늦게 late

등산하다 to go climbing

갈 거예요 will go

먹을거에요 will eat

잘거에요 to sleep

일어날거에요 to wake up

너무 아주 매우 엄청 (all mean so or very)

춥다 to be cold

덥다 to be hot

더워서 because it's hot

추워서 because it's cold

힘들다 to be difficult

힘들거에요 will be difficult

괜찮아요 are you ok

할 수 있어요 I can do it

누구하고 with who

친구하고 with friends

이랑 하고 go with (either one)

같이 together

안 돼요 No you can't

blah blah 수 있다 can do