- Hangul (the native Korean alphabet)
- Grammar Notes
- Pronoun vs Modifiers
- Topic Marking Particles and Subject Marking Particles
- Weather Phrases
- Dialogue 5
- Discussion 6
- Dialog 7
- Talk to me In Korean Free Lessons
- Udemy Course for Beginners by Motivate Korean
- Coursera Course called Learn Korean
- How to study korean is a reallygreat site.
- Paper: http://keytokorean.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/wongoji-writing-paper.pdf
- Nanum Font seems to be popular
- Korean Maps: http://map.daum.net/
- Repetitive Learning: http://www.memrise.com/
- kmaru: www.kmaru.com
- Full course on how to learn Hangul ::https://www.learn-korean-now.com/membership.php
- Fun Quiz site to learn Hangul http://www.aeriagloris.com/LearnKorean/
- Rocket Korean
- I might check this out: Korean Grammar for International Learners
- Cool program for combining letters and hearing pronunciations http://mooc.yonsei.ac.kr/ksh/
- Reference :: https://www.zkorean.com/hangul/appearance
- Nice Overview of how to learn Hangul :: http://www.learnkoreanlanguage.com/learn-hangul.html
To type korean characters into emacs, first, set the keyboard input method using
M-x set-input-method and choose
Then, to switch back and forth between korean and english, use
- eo : sounds like "awe" to me
- i : sounds like "eee" to me
- eu : sounds like "euw"
- ㅏ :: "a" sound as in "father"
- ㅓ :: [eo] sound as in "awe"
- ㅗ :: "ol" sound, sort of without the l and sort of like your saying "o"
- ㅜ :: "ooo" sound, as in "you"
- ㅡ :: "oo" sound, as in "good". Sort of like getting hit in stomach, but don't grunt! Comes from back of mouth.
- ㅣ :: "ee" sound, as in "meet"
- ㅔ :: short "e" sound, as in "yes"
- ㅐ :: "ea" as in "bear"
When a vowel symbol has 2 small marks (instead of one small mark), add a 'y' before the standard vowel sound.
- ㅑ :: "yah" as in "yacht", sharp a sound, like someone saying "yeah" in english
- ㅕ :: "ya" (softer "a" sound, almost "o"), as in the sound boys make when pretending to do karate "Hi-Ya!"
- ㅛ :: "yo", as in "yo-yo".
- ㅠ :: "you". easy.
- ㅖ :: "ye", as in "yes"
- ㅒ :: "ye", really subtle difference from ㅖ
- ㅘ :: "o" ("ol") followed by "a" ("yeah"), say it fast enough and it sounds like "wa" (like a baby crying). Native speakers gloss over and often just pronounce the ㅏ
- ㅜㅓ :: "ooo" ("you") followed by "awe". say it fast: "wah" (like "waffles")
- ㅟ :: "wee"
- ㅢ :: "uee". this is a weird one. It's the gutteral, back-of-the mouth ㅡ, followed by ㅣ
- ㅞ :: "we" as in "wet"
- ㅚ :: same as ㅞ
- ㅙ :: "wea", very similar to ㅚ, but different.
- ㅇ :: makes no sound at beginning of syllable. At end of syllable, makes "ng" sound. Not considered a consonant, really.
- ㅁ :: basic 'm' sound
- ㄴ :: basic 'n' sound
- ㄱ :: mixture of 'g' and 'k'. Referred to as "voiced" ('g' sound) or not "voiced" ('k' sound). When ㄱ is between two vowels it will sound more like a 'g' sound than 'k'. At the end of a word, it sounds like a very light 'k' sound that hardly noticable.
- ㅂ :: mixture of 'b' and 'p' sounds. 'b' is voiced and 'p' is not voiced
- ㄷ :: mixture of voiced 'd' and not voiced 't' sound.
- ㅅ :: 's' sound
- ㅈ :: mixture of voiced 'j' and 'ch' sound
- ㅎ :: 'h' sound, but sometimes not pronounced
- ㄹ :: sort of a rolling 'r', 'L' sound
Don't try to translate from korean - to english - to korean in your head. Instead, think like a baby learns, just try to think and speak in korean.
(thanks to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJ4uIXIIy0M)
- Chris Longdale :: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0yGdNEWdn0
The five principles are:
- Focus on language content that is relevant to you.
- Use your language as a tool to communicate from day 1.
- When you understand the message you will acquire the language unconsciously, i.e comprehensible input (Krashen, et al)
- Language is not about accumulating a lot of knowledge but is rather a type of physiological training.
- Psycho-physiological state matters – you need to be happy, relaxed, and most importantly, you need to be tolerant of ambiguity. Don’t try to understand every detail as it will drive you crazy.
The seven actions are:
- Listen a lot – it doesn’t matter if you understand or not. Listen to rhythms and patterns.
- Focus on getting the meaning first, before the words. Body language and facial expressions can help.
- Start mixing, get creative, and use what you’re learning
- Focus on the core – the most commonly-used words, and use the language to learn more (What is this/that? How do you say ? etc.)
- Get a language parent – someone who is fluent in the language and who will do their best to understand what you mean; who will not correct your mistakes; who will feedback their understanding of what you’re saying using correct language, and uses words that you know.
- Copy the face – watch native speakers and observe who their face, and particular their mouth, moves when they’re speaking
- “Direct connect” to the target language – find ways to connect words directly with images and other internal representations.
Week one Learn how to say this in target language:
- What is this?
- How do you say?
- I don't understand.
Native Korean Numbers and Sino-Korean Numbers
Sino-Korean refers to a Korean word based on Chinese language.
1 일 2
- 감사 = "appreciation", or "thankfulness"
- 합니다 = "I do"
- 감사합니다 = thank you
- 안녕하세요 = hello
- 죄 remember ㅚ makes the "weh" sound
- 죄송합니다 = "sorry"
- 초삼합니디 = "sorry" (?) Not sure what's different than above?
- 저기요 = "excuse me", "hey, you over there!" (but more polite)
- 안닝히 가세요 = "Good Bye", when you're leaving
- 안녕히 계세요 = "See you", when someone else is leaving
- 잭 = book
- 카피 = coffee
- 네 = "That's right", or "I'm here", or "I understand", or "I see", or "uh huh".
- 네,맞아요 = Yes, you're right (with emphasis)
- 네? = "What did you say?", or "Pardon me?"
- 네? = "I don't understand"
- 네! = "I'm surprised!"
- 아니요 = "I disagree" or "Thats Not right" or "You're incorrect"
- 촣 = you (?)
- 죄송 = apology (?)
- 감사합니다 = Thank You
- What is it? :: Mwah yay-yoAngry tone means "What do you want?! leave me alone!"
- aroo boon (everyone)
- Kamsa Hamnida aroo boon
- My Bad, My Fault (sort of like I'm sorry) :: joe-song-hap-mi-da
- Excuse me (get someones attention) joe-gi-yo
- Excuse me (pass thru) :: jam-si-man-yo
- Please Give me - 주세요
- taste - 맛
- It's tasty. It's delicious - 맛있어요
- It's not tasty. - 맛없어요
- 카메라예요 - It's a camera
- 이거 카메라예요 - This thing is a camera
- 이 카메라예요 - This is a camera
- 이 카메라 - This camera
- 이에요 or 에요 = is, it's
- 아니에요 = it is not, you are not, to be not
Also used as a response for "Thank You".
- "is water": mul e-a-you
- "is me" : toh yay-you
- "is School" : hak-you yay-you
- "What is it?" : 뭐예요? [mwo-ye-yo?]
The rule that determines if word is e-a-yo or ya-yo. If the word has a 3 consonant, then use e-a-yo. If not, use yay-yo.
- 이 = "this"
- 거 or 것 = thing, item, stuff, fact
- 이거 or 이것 = this thing, this item, this one
이 = this 저 = the, that (over there, away from both people) 그 = the, that (close to another person)
- Add "geo" and "geot"
- 있어요 = Have or Exists
- 없어요 = Don't have or Doesn't Exists
conjugate means to change the tense of a verb
- Pronoun: "This is my car".
- Modifier: "This car is mine". Modifiers are followed by nouns
In Korean there are different words for pronouns vs modifiers. See the different versions of "This" for an example.
Most languages don't have Subject or Topic Marking Particles.
In Korean you put particles after words. Particles let other people know what you are talking about or going to talk about it.
Topic Marking Particles put emphasis on words. "As in, the weather is good today at least (but maybe not anything else is good)"
은 for words ending with last consonant 는 for words ending with a vowel
"none other than", or "nothing but"
이 for words ending with last consonant 가 for words ending with vowel
- tjew-ya-yo "Is good"
- i-cheak-tjeh-ya-yo = simplest way to say "This book is good". No emphasis.
- i-cheak-ueng-tjeh-ya-yo = "at least this book is good", "this is the only book that's good", "other books are bad"
- i-cheak-i-tjeh-ya-yo = "this book is good", "none other than this one is good". This is sort of like an answer to "Which one is good".
일기예보에서 오늘 날씨가 어떻다고 했어요? what did the forecast say about today's weather
맑아 it's clear
맑았어요 it was clear
맑을거에요 it will be clear
맑을거야 informal it will be clear
It is cloudy 흐려요
It was cloudy 흐렸었어요
It will be cloudy 흐릴거에요 informal 흐릴거야
It is rainy 비가 와요 informal 비가 와
It was rainy 비가 왔었어요 informal 비가 왔었어
It will be rainy 비가 올거에요 informal 비가 올거야
It is snowy 눈이 와요 informal 눈이 와 눈 (snow)
눈이 오다 it's snowing
눈이 왔었어요 it was snowing informal 눈이 왔었어
it will snow 눈이 올거에요
It will be snowy informal 눈이 올거야
바람이 불어요 it is windy
불다 to blow
blow candles 양초를 불다
it's windy 바람이 불어
It was windy 바람이 불었어요 informal 바람이 불었어
it will be windy 바람이 불거에요 informal 바람이 불거야
it is foggy 안개가 껴요 informal 안개가 껴
it was foggy 안개가 꼈었어요 informal 안개가 꼈었어
it will be foggy 안개가 낄거에요 informal 안개가 낄거야
대니 : 일기예보에서 내일 서울 날씨가 어떻다고 했어요? what did the forecast say about tomorrow's weather in Seoul? 서울 어떻다고 인천 대이브 : 일기예보에서 내일 비가 올거라고 했어요 Forecast said, it will be rainy
대니 : 우산을 챙겨야겠네요 I will prepare an umbrella
도착 할 것이다 will arrive
먹을 것이다 will eat
먹을 거에요 I will eat
잘 것이다 will sleep
여기요, 결혼 선물이에요. Here is a wedding present.
고마워요 thank you
이게 뭐에요? what is it?
신혼여행 honey moon
신랑하고 with your group
같이 가요 go together
입어요 wear it
들어오다 to come inside a building to enter
들어와요? when will you come?
늦다 to be late
늦어요 will you be late?
늦게 오다 to come late
올 거에요 speaking asking form of "to come"
어제보다 than yesterday
나는 너보다 키가 크다 I am taller than you
대니는 마이크 보다 더 잘생겼다 Danny is more handsome than Mike
몰라요 don't know (negative sentence)
아직 yet, still (depends on context of sentence)
저녁먹자 Let's eat dinner
와서 저녁먹자 come and eat dinner
와서 come and
먹고 eat and
자고 seleep and
[4/12/16, 8:47:43 AM] Danny Yeon: 등산하다 to climb [4/12/16, 8:47:48 AM] Danny Yeon: 그리고 and [4/12/16, 8:47:51 AM] Danny Yeon: = 등산하고 put them together: climb and ..
먹고 올 거예요 I will eat and will come.
많다 to be a lot
네. 요즘 일이 많아서 바빠요 I have been busy these days because of a lot of work
많아서 because of a lot
그래도 or 하지만 but
먹어야 돼요 have to eat
노력하다 to try
노력해볼게요 will try
먹어볼게요 will try to eat
자볼게요 try to sleep.
깨우다 wake up
깨워주세요 Please wake up
일어났어요 I woke up
그렇게 like that
일어나야돼요 do it like that
등산하다 to go climbing
갈 거예요 will go
먹을거에요 will eat
잘거에요 to sleep
일어날거에요 to wake up
너무 아주 매우 엄청 (all mean so or very)
춥다 to be cold
덥다 to be hot
더워서 because it's hot
추워서 because it's cold
힘들다 to be difficult
힘들거에요 will be difficult
괜찮아요 are you ok
할 수 있어요 I can do it
누구하고 with who
친구하고 with friends
이랑 하고 go with (either one)
안 돼요 No you can't
blah blah 수 있다 can do